The Impact of Project Contributions and Social Factors on Authorship and Inventorship

Using unique survey data from over 2,000 life scientists, we examine the extent to which dif-ferent types of substantive project contributions as well as social factors predict whether a scientist is named as author on a paper and inventor on a patent. We find that the predictors of authorship differ from those of inventorship. A wider range of project contributions may re-sult in authorship, and social factors appear to play a larger role in authorship decisions than in inventorship decisions. We also find evidence that project contribution and social factors interact in predicting authorship, suggesting that the two sets of factors should be considered jointly rather than seen as independent determinants of attribution. In addition to providing novel insights into the functioning of the authorship and inventorship system, our results have important implications for managers, policy makers, and innovation scholars who often rely on patents and publications as measures of scientists? performance.